Open Access

What is Open Access?

Open Access is the free, immediate, online access to the results of scholarly research, and the right to use and re-use those results as you need. An Open Access publication is immediately available online – without costs – to read, download, copy, print, disseminate or search. (European University Institute. https://www.eui.eu/Research/EUIPublications/AcademicPublications/OpenAccessandNetworks)

Open Access is the practice of providing on-line access to scientific information that is free of charge to the end-user and is re-usable. (Central European University, ACADEMIC COOPERATION AND RESEARCH SUPPORT OFFICE. https://acro.ceu.edu/open-access-oa-publishing)

Open Access is a publishing model that provides immediate, subscription free access to the full text of published articles.In the Open Access model, publication costs are usually covered by the author’s institution or research funds. (The official journal of ENSP published by European Publishing. http://www.tobaccopreventioncessation.com/Open-Access,200.html)

Open Access means that scientific literature is made available free of charge on the internet, while the author’s copyrights are protected. Open Access therefore allows the reading and downloading of entire texts and the printing of a private copy. (Göttingen University, Göttingen State and University Library. https://www.sub.uni-goettingen.de/en/publishing-open-access/open-access/)

Open access to research articles was a disruptive change in the academic publishing paradigm that took place and, for about the last 20 years, is still continuing (Suber P, 2012. Open access (The MIT Press Essential Knowledge Series ed.) ISBN 9780262517638)

Open access to journal articles gave birth to a quickly growing baby now known as “open data publishing” which normally takes place as:
(1) publishing data supplementary files to the article,
(2) deposition of data in repositories and linking these to and from the article,
(3) stand-alone description of the data as “data papers” or “data notes” and
(4) publication of data integrated in the narrative content of the article. (Biodiversity Informatics Unit of the German Centre for Integrative Biodiversity Research (iDiv), Leipzig, on 15th of February 2017 )

Scientific knowledge generated with public funds is a common good and access to it is a universal right. Non-profit publishing model to preserve the scholarly and open nature of scientific communication. (AmeliCA, Redalyc’s (Network of Scientific Journals from Latin America and the Caribbean, Spain and Portugal, United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), the Latin American Council of Social Sciences (CLACSO). http://amelica.org/index.php/en/home/)

Open infrastructure is also an essential component of the second opportunity, redefining the business relationships between scholarly publishers, service providers, institutions, and funders. (Catriona MacCallum, Director of Open Science at Hindawi. https://www.hindawi.com/post/an-open-science-future-europe-leads-the-way/)

Open Science is about increased rigour, accountability, and reproducibility for research. It is based on the principles of inclusion, fairness, equity, and sharing, and ultimately seeks to change the way research is done, who is involved and how it is valued. It aims to make research more open to participation, review/refutation, improvement and (re)use for the world to benefit.(Ghent University, Belgium. https://www.ugent.be/en/research/research-strategy/open-science.htm)

Open access covers all types of peer-reviewed publications, both journal articles and books (monographs). Peer-reviewed books that are published under an open access licence (the CC BY licence) – in other words, books that are ‘free to read’ and ‘free to share’. (Dutch National website providing information for academics about the advantages of open access. https://www.openaccess.nl/en/open-publications)

Generally speaking, Open Access stands for free and unrestricted online access to research results and findings. Usage rights are often granted via Creative Commons Licences. There is not one, but various statements and definitions of Open Access, such as the Berlin Declaration on Open Access to Knowledge in the Sciences and Humanities, the Budapest Open Access Initiative or the Bethesda Statement on Open Access Publishing.  (European Space Agency   http://open.esa.int/open-access-at-esa/)

Open Science represents a new approach to the scientific process based on cooperative work and new ways of diffusing knowledge by using digital technologies and new collaborative tools (European Commission, 2016 ).

Open Science is frequently defined as an umbrella term that involves various movements aiming to remove the barriers for sharing any kind of output, resources, methods or tools, at any stage of the research process. (The FOSTER portal, European Union’s Seventh Framework Programme for research, technological development and demonstration under grant agreement no 612425  https://www.fosteropenscience.eu/node/1420)

Open Science is all about making science work better so that it can address the world’s challenges. It has been at the top of the EU’s agenda for some time. The European Commission has the ambitious target of achieving Open Access to all scientific publications by 2020. (Guardian News & Media https://www.theguardian.com/science/political-science/2018/jun/29/elsevier-are-corrupting-open-science-in-europe)

Academic and scientific research needs to be accessible to all. This is why open access to research matters – and there have been several encouraging steps in the right direction.(Guardian News & Media. https://www.theguardian.com/education/2019/mar/28/paywalls-block-scientific-progress-research-should-be-open-to-everyone)

Affordable and easy access to scientific information is very important for the scientific community itself, but also increasingly important for innovative small businesses. (European IP Helpdesk, funded by the European Commission (under contract EASME/H2020/2018/008)http://www.iprhelpdesk.eu/Fact-Sheet-Open-Access-to-Publications-and-Data-in-H2020-FAQ)

Open access is the practice of providing online access to scientific information (articles, monographs, research data) that is free of charge to the reader, and licensed so that it can be reused and exploited by researchers, the industry, and citizens. (National Contact Points for Science. SiS.net is funded by Horizon 2020, the European Union’s Research and Innovation Programme, under Grant Agreement 857769. https://www.sisnetwork.eu/media/ sisnet/Policy_Brief_OA_FINAL.pdf)

Small rebellions, universitywide subscription renegotiations, and a European open-access mandate for certain research are putting unusual pressure on industry giants. (The Chronicle of Higher Education, Washington DC, USA. https://www.chronicle.com/interactives/Trend19-OpenAccess-Main)

Open access should facilitate trust in expert scholarly work through increased transparency, and play an important role in supporting research integrity by allowing full peer scrutiny. ( European Federation of Academies of Sciences and Humanities. https://www.allea.org/wp-content/uploads /2018/12/ALLEA_Response_PlanS.pdf)

Copyright enables publishers to invest in high-quality scientific journals and related information products as well as innovative ways to disseminate content. (The Association of American Publishers https://publishingperspectives.com/ 2018/11/american-publishers-address-concerns-about-plan-s/)

Open Access: A proven track record of success. Supporting the evolution of Open Access publishing to facilitate the widest possible dissemination of high-quality research. (Oxford University Press (department of the University of Oxford). https://academic.oup.com/journals/pages/open_access)